Scope and magnitude are differences between short and long prose. A short story is best advised of limited scope, magnitude too somewhat. Scope is a matter of number of events, settings, and characters and conflicts and such. Short prose limits them because each requires development that soon could overwhelm word count limitations and miss needed story movement and satisfaction. Plot, too, a limited scope. Many short stories depict what amounts to a single, final act.
Edgar Allen Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado" is a classic one-act short fiction in three parts and a limited number of events, settings, characters, and conflicts. Arguably, the story is one event, three settings, two actors, and one conflict.
In other words, focused.
Magnitude is more subjective though speaks to tension's empathy-sympathy and curiosity arousal and audience appeal. How appealing "The Cask" is is subjective. Anyone slighted by a rival could care about the story, its settings, characters, and event. The magnitude of the story doesn't become apparent until the end, though is cued throughout, actually, a story that appeals again and again from Poe's techniques and the re-realization time and again of the story's emotional charge.
Long fiction allows more leisure to develop emotional charge, scope, and magnitude, more events, though a single event action of congruent human condition conflict and surface conflict, more settings in which to develop events, and more characters to develop events and settings and conflict. However, long fiction no less than short needs focus and segmentation. Ideally, a long fiction is an assembly of short fiction segments, at least features of short fiction: limited events, settings, characters, conflicts, scope, emotional charge, and magnitude though that build upon what came before.
Less matters of style mannerisms, more matters of content and organization craft distinguish short from long fiction. The organization flow generally is from a destablilzed state of affairs to a less stable state through efforts to stabilize and to a stable state and consequently, unstable to stable emotional charge. Content organization that manages that equilibrium movement is paramount regardless of voice mannerism, i.e., told or shown emphases, first or third person, overt or covert narrator, detached, open, or close distance, and so on.
Time flow management is another area of difference between long and short prose. Narrative time and story time can be identical, one expanded, one contracted.
Short prose can feel as leisurely as long fiction, though establishes time's flow rate by briefer markers. Narrative time is time elapsed reading a story, about fifteen minutes average for a two-thousand-word story, varies though, by reader and story. Some short stories can feel like a longer span has passed than its elapsed reading time, in masterful hands, though only fifteen minutes elapsed. Or a writing method could make those fifteen minutes seem like an eternity of tedium.
Story time elapsed for a short story could depict one instant in time to all eternity and no less be enjoyable.